Four Forces

According to standard physics, there are 4 fundamental forces of nature:

  • Gravity
  • Strong Force
  • Electromagnetism
  • Weak Force

We are told that while there was a single unified force at the moment the universe was created in the Big Bang, this force separated out into the 4 components as the universe cooled.

The order in which they separated is allegedly the same as the list above, at the following temperatures and times:

4 Forces

In an ideal world, we would have a standard model of physics that explained everything in terms of the single unified force.

In the real world, however, we are faced with separate theories for each of the forces:

  • General Relativity (Gravity)
  • Quantum Electrodynamics (Electromagnetism)
  • Quantum Chromodynamics (Strong Nuclear Force)
  • Electroweak Theory (Weak Nuclear Force)

As well as supporting theories for other specific aspects including:

  • Dirac Equation (Relativistic electrons)
  • Schrodinger Equation (Hydrogen spectrum)
  • Maxwell's Equations (Classical Electronmagnetism)

At least the Electroweak Theory has unified 2 of the 4 forces. At a push, we can accept Quantum Mechanics as a combined, consistent model of the Strong, Electromagnetic and Weak forces, but even then it conspicuously falls short of integrating with Gravity.

Numerous attempts to directly unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics at an analytical level have famously struggled to get anywhere useful.

This is the arena into which we will pitch our efforts.

Rather than starting with the analytical foundations of the other theories, we will instead start from scratch and think about what it means to have a single unified force. We will consider what it means to have a particle-based theory in classical terms, together with the attractive and repulsive aspects we would need from a unified force.

We will start with classical Gravity as our single force and then see if we can adapt it to model the Strong, Electromagnetic and Weak forces. In so doing, we hope to provide a framework that will also explain the Dark Matter and Dark Energy results from astrophysics.

Whereas standard physics has conservation of energy as its guiding principle, we will instead base our theory on conservation of particles, under the assumption that the fundamental particles are transferred between matter and energy forms.

We will show that the quantum vacuum consists of individual funadamental particles. Only when these particles combine together in groups of 2, 3 or more do they become detectable.

We will provide explanations that show how our unified model relates to known experimental results. This includes providing composite models of the familiar particles (electron, proton, neutron, muon and pion) in terms of our basic building blocks. We will also show that the photon and neutrino may also be modelled as composite particles.

Finally, we will speculate a little as to what new predictions might be made from such a model.

< Previous Next >