The next generalisation we can make to our unified model is to introduce the concept of a variable mass quantum. We can keep the gravitational mass (a.k.a. charge) the same with all values constrained to be 1, whilst allowing the inertial mass (a.k.a. mass) to take on one of 2 values, either 1 or 2.

This leads to a model with 8 fundamental particles. We will retain the labels A,B,C and D whilst introducing a subscript to indicate the inertial mass:

Particle | Gravitational Mass (m_{g}) | Inertial Mass (m_{i}) |
---|---|---|

A_{1} | +1 | +1 |

B_{1} | -1 | -1 |

C_{1} | -1 | +1 |

D_{1} | +1 | -1 |

A_{2} | +1 | +2 |

B_{2} | -1 | -2 |

C_{2} | -1 | +2 |

D_{2} | +1 | -2 |

As before, we can draw up a table of interactions, whilst appreciating that this is getting a little unwieldy. This time, we use double arrows to represent the forces between
the subscript_{1} particles because the ratio of gravitational to inertial mass is twice as much for them compared to the subscript_{2} particles:

Particle | A_{1} | B_{1} | C_{1} | D_{1} |
A_{2} | B_{2} | C_{2} | D_{2} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

A_{1} |
Attract ⇒ ⇐ | Combine ⇐ ⇐ | Repel ⇐ ⇒ | Combine ⇒ ⇒ |
Attract ⇒ ← | Chase ⇐ ← | Repel ⇐ → | Vortex ⇒ → |

B_{1} |
Combine ⇒ ⇒ | Repel ⇐ ⇒ | Combine ⇐ ⇐ | Attract ⇒ ⇐ |
Vortex ⇒ → | Repel ⇐ → | Chase ⇐ ← | Attract ⇒ ← |

C_{1} |
Repel ⇐ ⇒ | Combine ⇒ ⇒ | Attract ⇒ ⇐ | Combine ⇐ ⇐ |
Repel ⇐ → | Vortex ⇒ → | Attract ⇒ ← | Chase ⇐ ← |

D_{1} |
Combine ⇐ ⇐ | Attract ⇒ ⇐ | Combine ⇒ ⇒ | Repel ⇐ ⇒ |
Chase ⇐ ← | Attract ⇒ ← | Vortex ⇒ → | Repel ⇐ → |

A_{2} |
Attract → ⇐ | Vortex ← ⇐ | Repel ← ⇒ | Chase → ⇒ |
Attract → ← | Combine ← ← | Repel ← → | Combine → → |

B_{2} |
Chase → ⇒ | Repel ← ⇒ | Vortex ← ⇐ | Attract → ⇐ |
Combine → → | Repel ← → | Combine ← ← | Attract → ← |

C_{2} |
Repel ← ⇒ | Chase → ⇒ | Attract → ⇐ | Vortex ← ⇐ |
Repel ← → | Combine → → | Attract → ← | Combine ← ← |

D_{2} |
Vortex ← ⇐ | Attract → ⇐ | Chase → ⇒ | Repel ← ⇒ |
Combine ← ← | Attract → ← | Combine → → | Repel ← → |

Clearly symmetric cases containing just the subscript_{1} particles are the same as before.

Likewise, symmetric cases containing just the subscript_{2} particles are very similar, just with heavier inertial masses leading to slower accelerations. We can think of these as a bit like the Superpartner predictions from the Sypersymmetry (SUSY) theories.

The asymmetric cases arise when we start to mix the lighter particles with the heavier ones:

- Asymmetric Attract is similar to symmetric Attract, just with an offset Center of Mass
- Asymmetric Repel is similar to symmetric Repel, they just head off at different speeds
- Symmetric Combine splits into 2 asymmetric cases:

If we take a closer look at the A_{1}B_{2} case, we find that essentially they combine together and accelerate to light speed in a similar way to
A_{1}B_{1} or A_{2}B_{2}. However, the lighter A_{1} accelerates faster, getting further away all the time while the heavier B_{2} chases but can never catch up, a bit like the Tortoise and the Hare.

We end up with a behaviour that is kind of half-way between Combine and Repel.

Given that the fixed-distance-apart characteristic of Combine behaviour is missing, it it not really appropriate to think of the Chase cases as composite particles,.

We reserve the right to revisit both Chase and Repel when we come to model Quantum Entanglement.

We note that the exact ratio of inertial mass quanta (1 versus 2) is unimportant here as we will get essentially the same behaviour over a wide range of ratios.

An interesting behaviour can be seen with the A_{2}B_{1} case. Here we find that the heaver and slower A_{2} tries to run away, but is continually hounded by the lighter and faster B_{1}.

In the general case, there will be a combined angular momentum governed by their initial positions and velocities, with the B_{1} spiralling around the A_{2} in a Vortex.

The composite particle remains stable, at least until it encounters something else.

Again we note that the exact ratio of inertial mass quanta is unimportant.

A really interesting behaviour emerges when we consider what happens to our Vortex cases in the presence of an external gravitational (a.k.a. electromagnetric) field.

For example, we could place A_{2}B_{1} in a system with distant A particle.

We find that the both the A_{2} and the B_{1} components are initially attracted towards the distant A. However, the lighter and faster B_{1} gets there first, effectively placing itself in between.

As it is closer to the A_{2}, the repulsion from the B_{1} now dominates the attraction from the distant A.

What happens is that the composite vortex accelerates away from the distant A, even though the individual components are both attracted towards it.

We note that this behaviour is similar to Diamagnetism.

Conversely, we could place the A_{2}B_{1} in a system with distant B particle and find that it is attracted towards it, even though both components have an individual tendency to move away.

We note that this behaviour is similar to Paramagnetism.

We have seen with the vortex cases that the composite particles behave by moving the opposite way to what you would expect in the presence of an external field, given the behaviour of the individual components.

Yet we can see that by putting 2 of them together, there is a critical separation which differentiates short-range attraction from long-range repulsion.

*We can speculate this this gives us a mechanism for simulating the Strong Force. We also note that the concept fits the experimental observations from Alan D.Krisch (1987) that colliding protons behave like vortices, shoving each other round preferentially in their spin directions.*

Now that we have a mechanism for simulating the strong force, we can start to put together a wish-list for what it would take to model the Proton. If we disregard the precise value of the proton mass for the time being and assume that the BAB particle is our best model of an electron, we need at least the following:

- Overall +ve charge / gravitational mass in order to attract electrons
- An abundance of component types A or D
- Vortex behaviour to simulate the strong force
- Gravitational mass (a.k.a. charge) = +1 in balance with the electron
- Inertial mass (a.k.a. mass) magnitude > 1 to be heaver than the electron

If we stick with the fundamental particles in Model 8 for the time being, it turns out that we can manufacture a minimal proton model that conforms to the above requirements:

B_{1}A_{2}A_{2}

We find that the central A_{2} pair gives it a heavy core, with the lighter B_{1} spiralling around in a Vortex.

This means that it is attracted to the electron, even though all of the individual components are repelled.

Likewise when a proton encounters another proton at close-range, the attraction of the central A_{2} pair starts to dominate, giving them a way of sticking together as the first stage towards making a Deuteron.

It has an overall gravitational mass of 1.

It has an overall inertial mass of 3.

*Interestingly, our minimal model of the proton gives us 3 components, reminiscent of Quarks and with exclusively integer rather than fractional charges.*

*We also note that the inertial mass of the proton is opposite in sign to that of the electron. This means that when we put them together to make Hydrogen, we find that the center-of-mass is on the far side of the proton and not in-between it and the electron.*

It's now an easy matter to add a second B_{1} particle to make a neutral particle, equivalent to a Neutron:

B_{1}A_{2}A_{2}B_{1}

Again we find that the neutron has a capacity to stick together with either protons or neutrons courtesy of the attraction from the central A_{2} pair.

It has an overall gravitational mass of 0.

It has an overall inertial mass of 2.

*This time we find that our minimal neutron model has 4 components, unlike the quark model which has just 3.*